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“The requirement of accountability complements the above requirements, and is closely linked to the principle of fairness. It necessitates that mechanisms be put in place to ensure responsibility and accountability for AI systems and their outcomes, both before and after their development, deployment and use.”

– High-Level Expert Group on AI[1]



1High-Level Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence (2019) Ethics guidelines for trustworthy AI, p.19. European Commission, Brussels. Available at: (accessed 15 May 2020).

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