Biometric data processing
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Once the researchers have obtained the necessary biometric data, these can be processed to extract the biometric features to be employed in the research. Although it is theoretically possible to do it ‘manually’ (for instance, manually mapping the facial features in pictures, such as the distance between the eyes, the shape of the face, the height of the ears, etc.)[1], today such an approach is generally considered unfeasible and replaced with automated means often based on artificial intelligence technology (for specific guidance consult the part corresponding to Artificial Intelligence in these Guidelines). Regardless of this distinction, any processing activity needs to be conducted adoptingall the safeguards and precautions set during the preparation phase are respected.


1Some biometric recognition techniques have been first discovered as manual techniques, and even predates the birth of computing system. See for instance Mark Maguire, ‘The Birth of Biometric Security’, Anthropology Today 25, no. 2 (April 2009): 9–14,


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